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During the early 19th century there was only limited demand for glass bottles & jars since most goods were sold in bulk by general stores out of barrels, pottery jugs, wooden boxes, burlap sacks, and the like.Most people also lived off the land and had limited need for glass bottles; they also lacked the resources to pay for such luxuries.This unfortunately limits the utility of the closure adding much refinement to the dating of a bottle that these closures are found on.There have been many kinds of closures for bottles, ever since glass and pottery have been used for container materials.Minor and obscure closure types are beyond the scope of this website as such information would at best only marginally assist in the goals of the site (dating & typing a bottle) and would occupy an inordinate amount of space (see Closures are a useful subject to explore since the type of closure that a bottle had can often provide some dating refinement when used during a relatively narrow time frame.This is particularly true of canning jars and beer & soda bottles during the last half of the 19th and early 20th centuries.

The finish and closure are interrelated entities of any bottle.

Parallel with the creativity of bottle & jar makers in satisfying this demand for glass containers, the creative juices of closure designers were unleashed.

The thousands of different closure designs patented during the 19th century are a testament to that creativity, though most probably never made it into widespread manufacture (Lief 1965; Toulouse 1969a).

This variety is illustrated later on this page with links to several dozen canning jars exhibiting a kaleidoscope of closure types most of which saw very limited popularity and use.

Like finishes, the subject of closures is a complicated one with the variety of closures exceeding the variety of finishes.

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